Trump obstructed justice. He violated his constitutional oath by impeding a congressional investigation and keeping the American people in the dark. Trump directed a concerted and unprecedented defiance of lawful subpoenas, at which point impeachment is the only remedy.

Here’s three ways Trump obstructed justice:

  • TRUMP BLOCKED KEY WITNESSES: Trump refused to comply with the congressional investigation and blocked members of his administration from testifying, despite lawful subpoenas compelling them to do so.

At Trump’s direction, TWELVE current or former aides refused to testify in the inquiry. They include:

    • Mick Mulvaney — Trump’s chief of staff ordered OMB to withhold the aid at Trump’s direction and coordinated the pressure campaign through the “three amigos.”

    • John Eisenberg — Multiple witnesses came to Eisenberg, the White House’s top national security lawyer, with concerns about Trump’s conduct.

    • Michael Duffey — Duffey, a political appointee in OMB, took control of the portfolio that included Ukraine aid after career officials raised concerns about the legality of withholding the assistance.

    • And many more.

  • TRUMP DIRECTED GOVERNMENT AGENCIES TO WITHHOLD DOCUMENTS: Trump directed White House agencies to defy lawful subpoenas.

    • Congress made 71 specific requests or demands for documents — not a single one was turned over.

    • The Office of Management and Budget and Departments of State, Energy, and Defense have refused to turn over even a single record to Congress.

    • Witnesses have testified about taking meticulous and contemporaneous notes on the matter, but the State Department has refused to allow congressional investigators to view them.

  • TRUMP’S WHITE HOUSE REFUSES TO STATE ITS CASE, despite a lawful subpoena to do so (spoiler alert: They have no case).

    • Trump stonewalled the investigation by refusing to turn over key documents requested by Congress.

    • The White House’s attorney officially told Congress they would refuse to participate in the inquiry to even state their case.

    • In an official letter, the White House counsel told Congress that Trump and his administration would not participate in the inquiry.

Trump’s obstruction of justice is unlike anything we’ve seen in American presidential politics before.

  • Past presidents who were subject to an impeachment inquiry complied with some legal demands for documents at times when Trump has refused, and gave the go ahead to White House aides to testify if subpoenaed.

    • Richard Nixon: “All members of the White House staff will appear voluntarily when, requested by the committee. They will testify under oath, and they will answer fully all proper questions.”

    • Nixon produced documents in response to some White House subpoenas, including transcripts of more than 30 recordings or meetings involving the president.

    • Bill Clinton provided written responses to 81 questions from the House Judiciary Committee.

    • Among others, both Clinton’s Chief of Staff Erksine Bowles and Counselor Mack McLarty testified.

In America, nobody is above the law – not even the president. Congress must be able to engage in investigations of serious abuses of the public trust.